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Navigation Referencing

Academic writing requires that you acknowledge information sources which have been consulted. These sources must be described in detail. This is called referencing or citing.  


Referencing is important:  

  • to acknowledge the work and ideas of others
  • to avoid plagiarism. Not referencing another person's work is a serious offence
  • to indicate the range of sources you used; how up-to-date your sources are and whether you used relevant material
  • to make it possible for readers to locate your sources either out of interest or to verify your information.


Referencing Guides


Defined rules and systems exist for referencing. These Guides compiled by UKZN library staff will help you to format your references:  


Bibliographic Tools


UKZN subscribes to EndNote, a computerised bibliographic management package which allows you to create a library of references, format these references in a range of styles, and insert references into Word documents. UKZN users may download EndNote X7 from the ICT software library. Under 'Academic Software', select 'EndNote'. Follow the download instructions. An "EndNote Manual" is also available. UKZN has compiled its own Beginners guide to End Note X7.


There are a number of free and simple online referencing packages out there:




Mendelay-cloud based



Useful websites for citation styles

Plagiarism/Accredited Schools Online                                
ACS style guide
APA style
de Montfort University - The Harvard system of referencing
ICMJE - ICMJE Biomedical Sample references
Open journals guide to Harvard

All UKZN libraries hold print copies of manuals for various mainstream styles. Check the Library's catalogue.


update: July 2015